Fibre lasers provide many advantages that are driving their adoption in a growing number of applications that until recently relied on other laser technologies (solid-state crystal lasers, gas lasers, semiconductors, etc.). Therapeutic applications of lasers have existed since their introduction in the 1960s, and have continued to multiply and be refined ever since. The therapeutic fibre laser represents a significant refinement as it opens up new possibilities to improve precision and control during surgical procedures. This is particularly the case in urology, where a newcomer, the thulium fibre laser (TFL), has all the attributes to dethrone the Ho:YAG laser, which has been the gold standard for more than 20 years for lithotripsy and other laser treatments used in this branch of medicine.